Esmeralda, born Agnès, is a fictional character in Victor Hugo's 1831 novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame. She is a French Roma girl. She constantly attracts men with her seductive dances, and is rarely seen without her clever goat Djali. Louise Bertin and Victor Hugo collaborated to create an operatic version of Hugo's own "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" (under the title "La Esmeralda"). Hugo himself adapted the novel to the stage which, in fact, makes Bertin the only composer in history to have collaborated directly with Hugo on an opera.